Flat end fiber is made of cold-drawn steel wire. fibers with high tensile strength up to 1150 MPa. It is also called fiber-reinforced concrete which 500 times resistance to cracking and 40 percent lighter than traditional concrete. Special design of flat end provides optimum anchorage within the concrete mix rather than relying on the friction between concrete and steel. Often used in precasting concrete to reinforce floors, tunnels or buildings structural integrity and strength. The amount of flat end fiber shall be based on the percentage of the volume of composite, named "volume fraction" (Vf). Vf ranges from 0.1 to 3%.